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ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 

SEP 3 201 



The creation of animal life and structures has two 
aspects : — that which we see continually going on in 
reproduction ; and that which we have not seen, to- 
wit ; the original creation of the ancestral type of 
each species. It is our province to reason from the 
seen to the unseen. The flame of burning iron gives 
a peculiar color in the spectrum, which never varies. 
That we see. The same color appears in the analy- 
sis of the solar rays, by which we gain a knowledge 
of the unseen vapour of iron in the sun. 

All theories outside of the old, and now generally 
discarded idea of "special creation," are that species 
originated through the ordinary process of genera- 
tion. It was that of Lamark, and of the "Vestiges 
of Creation" — it is that of Darwin. There is much 
of minor detail, but none go back of this process. — 
Darwin, after the production of five or six primordi- 
al types, in a way which he does not explain, propa- 
gates them in the usual way ; but varies them into 
existing species, by his much noted idea of "Natural 
selection/' The Duke of Argyll, who is fast gaining 
the credit of being one of the closest thinkers of the 
time, and who in his late work : "The Keign of 
Law/' has given some very cogent answers to the 
Darwinian theory, fails to spc any process beyond 



2 ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 

that of ordinary generation. He says : "If I am 
asked whether I believe that every separate species 
has been a separate creation — not born, but sepa- 
rately made — I must answer that I do not believe 
it." (236) "There is one idea which has been com- 
mon to all theories of Development, and that is, the 
idea that ordinary generation has somehow been pro- 
ducing, from time to time, extraordinary effects, and 
that a new species is, in fact, simply tin unusual 
birth." (214). 

We see that animal creation as it goes on under 
our observation, is b} T the ordinary process. From 
this we are able to evolve, not merely the general, 
but the invariable rule, that every living organism, 
within historic times, has required a receptacle or 
matrix, for its conception, gradual development, and 
final birth. Surely, from what we thus see, we 
should be able to find a geneial law for the pro- 
duction of new species. If species are reproduced 
by this ordinary process — then it is fair to con- 
clude that they must have originated, not by "an 
unusual birth," but by an extraordinary generation; 
and herein, I apprehend, will be found the key to 
the whole mystery. 

In the first place, let us be clearly understood as 
to what we definitely mean by Creation ; and then 
on certain admitted facts, and fair deductions, we 
may gain some knowledge of the extraordinary gen- 
eration under which new species have originated. 



ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 6 

The remark is often made, that preservation is 
perpetual creation ; and it is true, because it requires 
precisely the same power, exerted in the same way 
to preserve, that it does to create. How our bodies 
are- preserved we see. They waste and renew every 
day ; and it takes not many days to give each of us 
an entirely new body. We renew our bodies by food; 
and what is food but dust, so to speak, in nn organ- 
ized form ? We live, therefore, corporeally on dust 
— in other words, we are continually created from 
the dust of the earth. But who gives this dust, or- 
ganized as bread and meat, power to furnish sus- 
taining elements to the body ? Who gives to the 
organs of the body power to digest and appropriate 
this dust when taken in as food ? We see certain 
operations of matter upon matter, which we term 
cause and effect, so uniform, that the like cause in- 
variably produces the like effect. Who organized 
and regulates the laws of cause and effect ? We see 
immense siderial systems, in which worlds without 
number are kept in continual and harmonious mo- 
tion, each preserving its relative position with the 
other. How came they to exist, and what power 
devised and preserves the centrifugal and centripetal 
forces which hold them under control ? In fine, we 
see everywhere the evidences of design ; and are 
brought face to face with the First Cause. Science, 
to escape the fate of a felo de se, can no longer af- 
ford to ignore the existence of a Creator. 



4 ORIGIN OF SPECIKS. 

It seems to me such existence may be proved sci- 
entifically, with the same certainty of any proposition 
depending on deductions from known promises. 

Assuming then, the existence of a Creator — God 
— by whom all things were and are created ; let us 
see if in the phenomena of matter, manifested to us, 
he does not permit us to form some rational idea of 
the modus operandi uf Creation. 

The questions here suggested are of the gravest 
character. How does the Creator work, in the crea- 
tion of those animals and plants of the time being ? 
How is the power exerted which gives efficiency to 
the intermediate causes which fall under our obser- 
vation ? Js it spasmodic and fractionary, or uni- 
form and incessant ? We very well know that not 
a blade of grass — not a shrub or a tree can grow — 
not a flower can blossom, or a fruit ripen — not an 
animal organism can be formed or developed, with- 
out an influx of light and heat from the sun; and 
that, were the sun blotted out, all vegetable and an- 
imal life would soon cease. Light and heat, how- 
ever, are only intermediate causes — mere agents — in 
the production of creative results, since it is not to 
be supposed, that they have original power in them- 
selves to perform the work. We can see that such 
flow of light and heat is uniform and incessant ; and 
we can easily understand why it should be so. In 
scientific investigations, we may mount to the sun : 



ORISIN OF SPECIES. D 

but that is the topmost round of the ladder, and 
mere science will help us no farther. 

We may, however, safely infer that the sun is 
proximate to the Creator — in other words, that it 
was the first proximate proceeding or projection from 
Him, in the creation of material things. The sun is 
everywhere present in the solar system, by its heat 
and light ; and in this respect affords an illustration 
of creative omnipresence. 

We see how the sun works as an agent, and beyond 
this we do not see ; but reasoning from the seen to 
the unseen, we are prepared to say that creative en- 
ergy or power flows ceaselessly from the Creator, in 
the creation, first of the material sun, next of the 
earth through the sun, and next of animals and 
plants through the sun and the earth, producing one 
after another, the numberless detail of created things; 
and the farther we go, the longer the chain of inter- 
mediate causes. This influx is necessarily incessant. 
Its interruption for a moment, would suspend all the 
operations of the laws of cause and effect. The sun 
would be extinguished, and all vitality and motion 
cease. It is difficult for the imagination to take in 
the full consequences that would follow. Perhaps 
annihilation — the sudden reduction of everything to 
nothing — would best express the situation. 

This omnipresent and unceasing action of creative 
power, seems not to have been comprehended by 
those who have theorized on the origin of species. — 



G ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 

Thus we find the author of "Vestiges of Creation" 
saying : "Is it conceivable, as a fitting mode of ex- 
ercise for creative intelligence, that it should be con- 
stantly moving from one sphere to another, to form 
and plant the various species which may be required 
in each situation at particular times ? — Yet such is 
the notion which we must form, if we adhere to the 
doctrine of special exercise." (p. 121). 

Well let us see. The heat and light of the sun is 
absolutely necessary, for the growth of wheat ; and 
the farmers of an entire continent have prepared the 
ground, and sown the grain in especial reference to 
the operation of these elements. Does the sun find 
it necessary to give its attention first to one farm 
and then to another, in order to perfect each crop P 
And can it be supposed that the sun's Creator has 
any less range and potency of creative action ? 

I have already said, that so far as all animal forms 
within the historic period are concerned, a receptacle 
or matrix has been used, and therefore found neces- 
sary in their creation. It may be added, that there 
is no fact known to science, or any reason by analogy 
by which the inference is warranted, that any differ- 
ent mode has been adopted in the production ot the 
ancestral types of the several species which have ex- 
isted, and still exist. This theory of creation, by 
Influx and incipient ova or matrices, receives re- 
markable confirmation in those facts in the histoiy 
of creation, which are conceded to be true, and to 



ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 7 

which the attention of the reader is now called. 

First, The creation of the material universe has 
proceeded from that which is rudimentary and im- 
perfect, successively to that which is more and more 
perfect. 

Passing by the question as to what may have been 
the elementary appearances of the sun, as beyond 
the reach of any fact known to us ; it is now univer- 
sally conceded that the rudiments of the earth were 
projected or thrown from the sun in a gaseous or 
nebulous form ; and that by a series of changes, run- 
ning through a vast period of time, our planet has 
been brought into its present condition. 

The animal kingdom commenced at the lowest in 
the scale, with the Protozoa, and thence proceeded, 
step by step, up to mm, the crowning work of crea- 
tion. Says Hugh Miller: "It is of itself an extra- 
ordinary fact, without reference to other considera- 
tions, that the order adopted by Cuvier in his 'Ani- 
mal Kingdom,' as that in which the four great classes 
of vertebrate animals, when marshalled according to 
their rank and standing, naturally range, should be 
also that in which they occur in order of time. The 
brain, which bears an average proportion to the spi- 
nal cord of not more than two to one, comes first — 
it is the brain of the fish ; that which bears to the 
spinal cord an average of two and a half to one suc- 
ceeded it — it is the brain of the reptile ; then came 
the brain averaging as three to one — it is that of the 



8 OBIGIN OF SPECIES 

bird. Next in succession came the brain that ave- 
rages as four to one — it is that of the mammal ; and 
last of all these appeared a brain that averages as 
twenty-three to one — reasoning, calculating man has 
come upon the scene." (''Footprints of the Creator," 
283.) 

Second, The evidence derived from Palaeontology 
shows the animal kingdom wonderfully linked to- 
gether in its gradations from the lowest forms of life 
up to man. It is not pretended that every link in 
the vast chain has been discovered, but enough is 
known to establish a general rule. 

First appear traces of infusoria ; then polypia- 

ria, crinoidea, and some humble forms of the artic- 

ulata and molusca, ages before there were any higher 

types of being. The lowest fishes partake of the 

0a ^/character of the lower sub-kingdom of the articulata. 

"As the Onchus of the Ludlow rocks, announced, 
as it were the dawn of vertebrate life, and foreshad- 
owed also, others of its class that were to follow, so 
the H&loptjcus, and others of the old red sandstone, 
in turn pointed forward to the Reptilian class. (Mc- 
Cosh, Typ. Forms, 328.) 

The Amphybia seems to connect life in the water 
with that of the land. Reptiles advance from fishes, 
and birds from reptiles. The Ithyncosaurus has the 
body of a reptile, with the beak and feet of a bird, 
and is the link between reptiles and and birds. — 
Birds of the ostrich tribe, (Struthionidce) especially 



ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 9 

the Apteryx, having imperfectly developed wings, a 
diaphragm, and feathers somewhat resembling hair, 
stand between birds and mammalia ; and in the 
same connection may be mentioned the Ornithoryn- 
ehus, the lowest of the mammalia, and having web- 
bed feet. The Marsupia connect the 0'viparam, 9 
with the higher mammifers. The Moscesaurus is 
intermediate between the Monitor and Iguana. — 
The generic distinction between the Mastodon and 
the Elephant, has been almost entirely broken down 
by the discovery of between twenty and thirty inter- 
mediate species, some ranging as far back as the 
Miocene period. (Lyell Ant. Man, 436). The An- 
thropoid Ape evidently stands between animals and 
the human race. 

It is not pretended that anything more than a 
general outline of these connections is here traced. 

The gradual development of the brain, also, fur- 
nishes strong evidence of this linking together of the 
animal kingdom. The lowest vertebrate — Amphi- 
oxus Lanceolatus — has a short spinal cord, but no 
brain. The next advance in fishes, furnishes a brain. 
We have already seen, from Hugh Miller, the cere- 
bral development in proportion to the length of the 
spinal cord. Prof. Huxley, in his "Man's Place in 
Nature," has thrown a flood of light on the mamma- 
lian brain, in its upward progress. Man, he says : 
"has been affirmed to differ fundamentally, from all 
the apes, in the character of his brain, which alone. 



10 ORIGIN oF SPECIES. 

it has been strongly asserted, exhibits the structures 
known to anatomists as the posterior lobe, the pos- 
terior cornu of the lateral ventricle, and the hippo- 
campus minor/' (102) 

These propositions, though the first has appear- 
ances in its favor, turn out to be unsupported ''by a 
single anatomical preparation/' and "it is precisely 
these structures which are the most marked cerebral 
characters common to man with the apes." 

The learned Professor, after tracing the progress 
of the brain through fish, reptile and bird, and as it 
is found in the lowest marsupials, such as the Opos- 
sum, points out an apparently new structure con- 
necting together the cerebral hemisphere among pla- 
cental mammals. He also notices the striking ad- 
vance from the evenly rounded brain of the lower 
placental mammals, to the tortuous cerebral foldings 
of the Elephant, the highest apes, and man. These 
comparisons also disclose some curious facts : as that 
the lowest man's skull has nearly twice the capacity 
of that of the Gorilla ; yet, this difference is not so 
great as that between the lowest ape and the Grorilla 
or Chimpanzee — nor so great as that between the 
lowest and the highest of the human species. 

It follows from this remarkable linking together 
of created things, and the order of succession from 
lowest to highest, that there is a necessary connec- 
tion between them : — that the creation of the prior 
thing is necessary to that which is to follow. No- 



ORIGIN. OF SPECIES. 11 

thing can exist without a cause ; and in a regular 
chain of intermediate causes, "nothing can exist but 
from a prior, and at length from the First/' 

The Earth could not exist without the Sun. The 
animal and vegetable kingdoms could not exist with- 
out the Earth. The Molusk and Articulate divi- 
sions could not exist without the Radiate, nor the 
Vertebrate without the three prior types, as a house 
cannot be built without a foundation. 

Birds could not have existed without the Pterodac- 
tyli — the Cetacea without the Ichthyosauri — the 
Horse without the Hipparion — Man without the Ape. 
It is true many of the prior links have become ex- 
tinct ; but they have served their uses, like the scaf- 
folding to a building, which is removed after the 
work is finished. 

This wonderful connection and inter-dependence is 
further proved by certain facts in embryology. The 
human embryo, commencing like every other, with a 
simple cell, is subject to a metamorphosis represent- 
ing the principal stages in the entire animal kingdom 
from lowest to highest. At any intermediate stage 
of creation, as when it had reached no higher than 
the fish, man could not have been created — at least, 
his creation then, would have been out of the estab- 
lished order. 

Third, There is a question of much importance 
touching the principal subject, about which there is 
a difference of opinion — that of Heredity, or, whcth- 



12 ORIGIN OK BFECJE8. 

er individuals of species always produce their like. 
Ad affirmative answer to this question effectually 
disposes of the Darwinian theory, and, unfortunately 
for that theory, the facts bearing upon it, falling un- 
der human observation dining the entire historic 
period, are all one way. These facts bear out the 
assertion that like uniformly produces like, under 
ordinary generation, with minor differences, — that is 
to say, dogs have always produced dogs — horses, 
horses, etc. It is true there are minor differences 
without number, because there never lia6<been-, and 
never will be any two things exactly alike. Th,e 
type of a species is well represented by a straight 
line, and the variations are departures from this line 
up or down, with a constant tendency to return to 
it, and keep in near proximity. This is the historic 
record, and there have been no experiments by do- 
mestication or otherwise, by which it is substantially 
contradicted. No amount of bird training has ever 
changed a pigeon into a hawk, or anything but a 
pigeon. The inference is fair — nay, it may be said 
to be conclusive — that heredity in ordinary genera- 
tion, has always been the rule, and always will be. 
In this, as the Duke of Argyll well says, Darwin has 
given to known causes, unknown effects. 

Man being the last creation of species, is un- 
doubtedly to remain the last. There was a final 
purpose from the beginning ; and that was reached 
and consummated in man. Says A<rassiz : "Who 



ORIGIN OF 8PECFE.S. 13 

can look back upon such a series, coinciding to such 
an extent, and not read in them the successive man- 
ifestations of a thought, expressed at different times 
in forms ever new, and yet tending to the same end, 
onward to the coming of man, whose advent is al- 
ready prophesied in the first appearance of the ear- 
liest fishes." (On Classification, 167.) 

Assuming that the lihizopod — found in a bed of 
rocks lower than the Siberian — was the first appear- 
ance of animal life upon the globe, it must have been 
created by direct influx into a protoplastic recepta- 
cle of earthy materials. It was a nearly shapeless 
mass, yet it had life, and was the birth of a species 
from dead matter ; the matrix and the offspring 
being separated by whatever separates and divides 
the inorganic from the organic kingdoms of nature — 
and this must certainly be granted to have taken 
place in at least this one case. In this lowest form 
of life, the mode of Creation is easily comprehended. 
But the creation of an Elephant by influx into crude 
earth, would not much more readily fall into belief, 
than to suppose a house built without a foundation, 
and suspended in the air. The logic of creation has 
a more consistent and practical basis. The Rhizo- 
pod, low and useless as it seemed, could nevertheless 
serve as a matrix for the creation of an advance spe- 
cies ; and so on up. And the rule will be found to 
prevail throughout, that the higher and more com- 
plicated the life and structure, the higher and more 



14 OBIGIN OB SPECIES. 

complex the matrix needed for its original creation 
and protection. 

Creative energy flows gestatively into ewry living 
organism, not only for original creation, but to re- 
produce. Life is always infused, and puts on its 
appropriate form. Life controls form. 

The life of a new species puts on its corresponding 
structure, varying radically, though by easy grada- 
tions, from the receptacle which gives it hirth. Thus 
the life of a Iihizopod puts on the form of a Iihizo- 
pod — that of a dog, the form of a dog, and so on. — 
The distinction between reproduction and the crea- 
tion of a new type is, that the former is by the ordi- 
nary process of generation and birth, while the latter 
is by extraordinary generation and ordinary birth. 
Reproduction, as already stated, follows the law of 
like producing like, with individual differences. God 
is the father of all his creatures, in a sense much 
broader than is usually understood. We often speak 
of Him as our Heavenly Father ; but He is really 
our only progenitor. In common parlance, we have 
an earthly father ; but our life does not come from 
him — he belongs only to the mediate causes by which 
we are created. My theory is that in the advancing 
steps of the creation of species, one is horn from an- 
other, by force of creative power, without the ordi- 
nary paternity required in reproduction. 

There is no middle ground between this theory 
and "special creation." Either each species were 



ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 15 

specially created, or there was a prepared organiza- 
tion (protoplasm, if you please), adequate to the re- 
ception and protection of the infant being. And, 
when we come to this oonclusion, there is but a step 
to the necessity of the highest living organism as a 
matrix (protoplasm) for the production of a still 
higher order of life and structure. 

Man, therefore, having the highest order «»f life 
and structure, could only, under this law, be pro- 
duced by the means of the next below him, to-wit : 
the anthropoid ape. But, though born of an ape 
mother, he is not of ape origin, because his paternity 
is due directly to the force of creative influx. 

Human life includes the animal, but has a higher 
plane superinduced, which has the power to think 
analytically and spiritually, to make unlimited im- 
provement, and generally, to do what animals can- 
not do. The animal is the foundation on which the 
human rests ; and without the former, the latter 
could not exist. But human life is immeasurably 
above the animal plane, and so distinct from it, as 
to make the idea of the development or evolution of 
the one from the other utterly absurd. In fact, the 
impossibility of such a development seems to be con- 
ceded by Mr. Wallace, the co-originator of the Dar- 
winian theory, in his late work on Natural Selection, 
(349). 

Yet the idea of Man born of an Ape! — Dr. Dar- 
win descended from a monkey ! Monstrous ! Be- 



[i> ORIGIN Ul< SPECIES. 

fore, however, falling into incurable hysterica, let us 
trace the distinguished author of "Natural Selec- 
tion," from conception, according to facts in embry- 
ology to which allusion has already been made. In 
the first place, he was a mere animalcule — then he 
resembled a fish — then a reptile — then a bird — tln-n 
one of the lower mammalia — then an ape, etc. If 
he had been born in the fourth stage, and the embryo 
could have lived, the world would have lost one of 
its greatest naturalists, but gained an addition to 
its Reptilia. 

The subject is too grave to be answered with ridi- 
cule or affected disgust ; especially as there are mul- 
titudes of human beings in the world, including not 
a few, in civilized lands, of whose patei nity a great 
many baboons might well be ashamed. Those who 
are nervous on this point may find relief by ciphering 
out the difference in dignity, between being created 
directly from the crude dust of the earth, or by 
means of this same dust organized into a complete 
structure of flesh and blood. The world — the Chris- 
tian world, at least — has witnessed, historically, the 
exhibition of that which is called the "miraculous 
conception" in the production of a Human so infi- 
nitely above common humanity, as to be capable of 
complete one-ness with Divinity. Even in that 
grandest display of of divine benevolence, involving 
the salvation of mankind, God has seen fit, not to 
depart from His established laws of creation. And 



ORIGIN OF SPFX'IES. it 

thus has been completed the mighty cycle of being, 
which begins and ends in Himself. 

It will be readily seen, that this theory does not 
preclude the idea, that other amorphous forms of 
life than the Rhizopod, were simultaneously created 
in the same way, as the starting points, or matrices,, 
tor all the principal divisions of the animal kingdom. 
Nor does it conflict with the idea, that individuals 
«>f the same species are, under certain limitations, 
varied by "'Natural Selection," and domestication. 
Nor with the idea that men were created in different 
parts of the earth, and at different periods, and more 
than one pair, at the same period and locality. 

It will also be observed, that under this theory, 
there is no such thing as a transition form in the sense 
spokmi of by Darwin and his critics. The only ap- 
proach to such a form, is an twisting organism ade- 
quate as a receptacle for a new generation. In one 
sense it is a theory of "Special Creation," but it 
proceeds in a mode which gives it the appearance of 
"■Evolution" or "Development." 

Finally, I hold and am ready to prove, that this 
theory does not necessarily conflict in the slightest 
degree with the Genesis account of Creation. 



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